Diseases Process

Nursing Continuing Education

Paget disease Teaching 2184

SN instructed patient on Paget disease. Paget disease is a chronic bone disorder. Most people who have Paget disease of bone have no symptoms. When symptoms occur, the most common complaint is bone pain. Paget disease can cause pain in the bones or joints, headaches and hearing loss, pressure on nerves, increased head size, bowing of limb, or curvature of spine. Because this disease causes your body to generate new bone faster than normal, the rapid remodeling produces bone that's softer and weaker than normal bone, which can lead to bone pain, deformities and fractures. To reduce your risk of complications associated with Paget disease of bone, try these tips, prevent falls by using assistive devices like a walker or cane, fall - proof your home. Remove slippery floor coverings, use nonskid mats in your bathtub or shower, eat well. Be sure your diet includes adequate levels of calcium and vitamin D, which helps bones absorb calcium and exercise regularly. Regular exercise is essential for maintaining joint mobility and bone strength.

Chronic venous insufficiency Teaching 2182

SN explained that the Chronic venous insufficiency ( CVI ) can’t be cured, but you can control leg swelling to reduce the likelihood of ulcers ( sores ). Recognizing the symptoms Be aware of the following: If you stand or sit with your feet down for long periods, your legs may ache or feel heavy. Swollen ankles are possibly the most common symptom of Chronic venous insufficiency ( CVI ). As swelling increases, the skin over your ankles may show red spots or a brownish tinge. The skin may feel leathery or scaly, and may start to itch. If swelling is not controlled, an ulcer ( open wound ) may form. What you can do Reduce your risk of developing ulcers by doing the following: Increase blood flow back to your heart by elevating your legs, exercising daily, and wearing elastic stockings. Boost blood flow in your legs by losing excess weight. If you must stand or sit in one place for a period of time, keep your blood moving by wiggling your toes, shifting your body position, and rising up on the balls of your feet. Pt verbalizes understanding.

Chronic venous insufficiency Teaching 2181

SN explained that the problems with the veins in the legs may lead to chronic venous insufficiency ( CVI ). CVI means that there is a long-term problem with the veins not being able to pump blood back to your heart. When this happens, blood stays in the legs and causes swelling and aching. Two problems that may lead to chronic venous insufficiency are: Damaged valves. Valves keep blood flowing from the legs through the blood vessels and back to the heart. When the valves are damaged, blood does not flow as well. Deep vein thrombosis ( DVT ). Blood clots may form in the deep veins of the legs. This may cause pain, redness, and swelling in the legs. It may also block the flow of blood back to the heart. Seek immediate medical care if you have these symptoms. A blood clot in the leg can also break off and travel to the lungs. This is called pulmonary embolism ( PE ). In the lungs, the clot can cut off the flow of blood. This may cause chest pain, trouble breathing, sweating, a fast heartbeat, coughing (may cough up blood), and fainting. It is a medical emergency and may cause death. Call 911 if you have these symptoms. Healthcare providers call the two conditions,Deep vein thrombosis ( DVT ) and pulmonary embolism ( PE ), venous thromboembolism ( VTE ).

Congestive Heart Failure Teaching 2178

SN explain about congestive heart failure ( CHF ). As blood flow out of the heart slows, blood returning to the heart through the veins backs up, causing fluid to build up in the tissues. The kidneys are less able to dispose of sodium and water, also causing fluid retention in the tissues. Fatigue, a tired feeling all the time and difficulty with everyday activities, such as shopping, climbing stairs, carrying groceries or walking. The heart can't pump enough blood to meet the needs of body tissues. The body diverts blood away from less vital organs, particularly muscles in the limbs, and sends it to the heart and brain. Lack of appetite, nausea, a feeling of being full or sick to your stomach. The digestive system receives less blood, causing problems with digestion. Confusion, impaired thinking, memory loss and feelings of disorientation. A caregiver or relative may notice this first. Changing levels of certain substances in the blood, such as sodium, can cause confusion. If you have 2 or more of these symptoms you may need to seek medical attention.

Congestive Heart Failure Teaching 2177

SN explained that the symptoms / signs of congestive heart failure ( CHF ) may include: Shortness of breath ( also called dyspnea ) most commonly during activity, at rest, or while sleeping, which may come on suddenly and wake you up. You often have difficulty breathing while lying flat and may need to prop up the upper body and head on two pillows. You often complain of waking up tired or feeling anxious and restless. Blood backs up in the pulmonary veins ( the vessels that return blood from the lungs to the heart ) because the heart can't keep up with the supply. This causes fluid to leak into the lungs. Persistent coughing or wheezing, coughing that produces white or pink blood - tinged mucus. Fluid builds up in the lungs. Buildup of excess fluid in body tissues ( edema ) swelling in the feet, ankles, legs or abdomen or weight gain. You may find that your shoes feel tight.

Diabetes Teaching 2176

SN explained that the Diabetes can affect the small blood vessels of the body that supply the skin with blood. Changes to the blood vessels because of diabetes can cause a skin condition called diabetic dermopathy. This appears as scaly patches that are light brown or red, often on the front of the legs.

Osteoarthritis Teaching 2156

Sn instructed about patient symptoms of ( OA ). Joint pain and stiffness. Pain and stiffness may get worse with periods of inactivity or overuse. People with osteoarthritis ( OA ) have more stiffness first thing in the morning ( usually for less than 30 minutes ) or after sitting for a prolonged period of time. Many people have more pain in their hips or knees if they walk farther than they usually do. They have weak muscles, grinding or crackling noise with motion, swelling or bumps, or loss of range of motion.

Diabetic wounds / ulcers Teaching 2155

Sn instructed patient about diabetic wounds / ulcers have poor or delayed healing. Healing problems are caused by the peripheral arterial diseases and peripheral neuropathy that can occur with diabetes, wherein the small blood vessels in different parts of the body, especially in the extremities ( hands and feet ), grow narrower and reduce the blood circulation to those areas. A lack of circulation in the extremities can result in a reduced supply of oxygen and nutrients to the body tissue and nerves, which is necessary for healing. Over time, nerves in these areas may become damaged, decreasing the sensation of pain, temperature and touch, making patients vulnerable to injury.

Glucose rise Teaching 2150

SN explain about a couple of things going on that make your glucose rise in the morning. One of these is insulin resistance, a condition that means your body's muscle and fat cells are unable to use insulin effectively to lower blood glucose. However, insulin resistance also affects how your liver processes, stores, and releases sugar, particularly at night. The liver is supposed to release small amounts of glucose when you're not eating. But in type 2 diabetes, the liver dumps more glucose than is needed into the bloodstream, especially at night. So, while your hormones are causing a natural rise in blood glucose, your liver is releasing even more sugar into your system. Because your insulin resistance prevents your muscle and fat cells from using the sugar, your blood glucose level rises.

Latanoprost ophthalmic Teaching 2149

SN instructed patient about Latanoprost ophthalmic. This is used to treat glaucoma ( a condition in which increased pressure in the eye can lead to gradual loss of vision ) and ocular hypertension ( a condition which causes increased pressure in the eye ). Latanoprost is in a class of medications called prostaglandin analogs. It lowers pressure in the eye by increasing the flow of natural eye fluids out of the eye. Nurse instructed more frequents side effects of latanoprost ( stinging, burning, itching, watering or swelling of the eye, redness of the eyelids irritation, dry eyes, among others ).